发表于:2022-08-17 17:39:01 范文

Factors that Reveal Celebritisation in Society 揭示社会中庆祝活动的因素

To begin with, democratisation as an indicator of celebritisation refers to the decentralisation of celebrity production. In reference to Draper (2008) quotes Andy Warhol, who predicted in 1968 that in future, nearly every person on the planet will achieve a celebrity status in society for at least 15 minutes. Speaking from this point of view, whereas the celebrity status in society was widely controlled by a small clique of individuals in spaces such as Hollywood, this is no longer the case. On the contrary, the emergence of new media platforms and technologies such as the internet and its interactive media and social websites (including Instagram, YouTube and Facebook) has establish a way for individuals in society who cannot access Hollywood or other larger platforms in spheres such as sports or politics, to engage in activities that have turned them into celebrities. Within this in mind, Sternheimer (2011) observe that the elite in society who were perceived as the only one who could achieve a celebrity status in the 1950s no longer have a monopoly on who can become a celebrity and who cannot. On the contrary, everyone in society who utilises the modern media and technologies has a chance to become a celebrity. Whereas this is the case, Turner (2006) argues that the democratisation of celebrity in society is only on the surface, but on a deeper analysis, it still remains an exclusive category and systematically hierarchical. However, Turner’s arguments are based on the fact that most celebrity statuses in the modern world are short-lived, a factors that can be explained by the fact that due to the proliferation of the modern media technologies, the society is constantly churning out new celebrities. Therefore, the ability of the existing celebrities to attract and maintain attention from the larger society is limited in some ways. Furthermore, the reality television among other media has also been responsible in creating celetoids (short-lived celebrities) who are turned into commodities and used to increase their profits, thus strengthening inequality in the celebrity system.

首先,作为庆祝活动指标的民主化指的是名人制作的分散。在提到德雷珀(2008年)时,安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)在1968年预言,在未来,地球上几乎每个人都将在至少15分钟内获得社会名人地位。从这个角度讲,虽然名人在社会上的地位被好莱坞等地的一小部分个人广泛控制,但情况已不再如此。相反,互联网及其互动媒体和社交网站(包括Instagram、YouTube和Facebook)等新媒体平台和技术的出现为无法访问好莱坞或体育或政治等领域其他更大平台的社会人士开辟了一条道路,参加使他们成为名人的活动。考虑到这一点,Sternheimer(2011)观察到,在20世纪50年代被视为能够获得名人地位的社会精英不再垄断谁可以成为名人,谁不能。相反,社会上每个使用现代媒体和技术的人都有机会成为名人。尽管如此,特纳(2006)认为社会名人的民主化只是表面上的,但从更深层次的分析来看,它仍然是一个排他性的类别和系统的等级。然而,特纳的论点是基于这样一个事实,即现代世界中的大多数名人身份都是短暂的,这一因素可以用以下事实来解释:由于现代媒体技术的扩散,社会不断涌现出新的名人。因此,现有名人吸引和保持更大社会关注的能力在某些方面是有限的。此外,真人秀电视和其他媒体也在制造celetoids(短命名人),这些名人被转化为商品并用于增加利润,从而加剧了名人体系中的不平等。

Apart from democratisation, another aspect that is an indicator of celebritisation is the diversification. In this regard, there is a need to observe that whereas in the past celebrities were associated with certain fields in society such as politics and entertainment, this has since shifted and nearly every field in society has a celebrity (Street 2004). This ranges from entertainment, media, sports, and politics, to the technology sector, and even the academic field among others. Similarly, the mainstream media such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television played an instrumental role in promoting the celebrity status of individuals in societies in the past (Gamson,  1994). However, with the advent of the internet and social media, there is a growing list of celebrities who have come to the limelight through non-mainstream media such as social media. With this in mind, there is a significant diversification in the media that is used to capture the attention of people in society and as such, enhance the celebrity status of an individual. The diversification of different celebrity production and consumption tools has created a platform for individuals from different social, political and economic background to enhance their public image, thus gaining a celebrity status. Furthermore, the main aim of most celebrities in the modern world is not just inclined towards gaining fame but also profiteering from this fame. For instance, Kurzman et al. (2008) observe that a doctor, a CEo or an attorney may hire a public relationship agent to enhance their popularity within their field and as such, create a platform to increase their fees. In addition to fame and profits, celebrities are also increasingly using their status to acquire power, thus diversifying the ‘use’ and ‘benefit’ of celebrity statuses in society.

除了民主化,另一个标志着庆祝的方面是多样化。在这方面,需要注意的是,在过去,名人与社会的某些领域(如政治和娱乐)有关联,但后来这种关联发生了变化,几乎社会的每个领域都有名人(Street 2004)。从娱乐、媒体、体育和政治,到科技部门,甚至学术领域,等等。同样,报纸、杂志、广播和电视等主流媒体在过去促进个人在社会中的名人地位方面发挥了重要作用(Gamson,1994年)。然而,随着互联网和社交媒体的出现,越来越多的名人通过社交媒体等非主流媒体成为人们关注的焦点。考虑到这一点,媒体有了显著的多样化,用于吸引社会人士的注意力,从而提高个人的名人地位。不同名人生产和消费工具的多样化为来自不同社会、政治和经济背景的个人创造了一个提升其公众形象的平台,从而获得名人地位。此外,现代世界大多数名人的主要目的不仅是为了获得名望,而且是从名望中牟取暴利。例如,Kurzman等人(2008年)观察到,医生、首席执行官或律师可能会雇佣公共关系代理,以提高他们在其领域内的知名度,并因此创建一个平台来增加他们的费用。除了名利之外,名人也越来越多地利用自己的身份获得权力,从而使名人身份在社会中的“使用”和“利益”多样化。

The last aspect that reveals the element of celebritisation in society is migration. Migration in this particular case refers to the ability of celebrities to explore other fields by exploiting their celebrity status, thus successfully venturing in other fields than those that have made them who they are (Barron 2006). Speaking from this point of view, there are numerous celebrities who have moved from their initial profession to successful work in other professions. For instance, Arnold Schwarzenegger, after establishing himself as a celebrity actor, went on to successfully vie for a political office. In the same way, Barron (2006) notes that Elizabeth Hurley was famous as an actor and a model, and later moved on to work in film production. Importantly, the migration as a concept in celebrity affirms democratisation in celebrity status in the sense that celebrities are not just limited to a single profession but rather are free to move to other professions. Barron (2006) affirms that such a move is necessary to help celebrities establish long lasting careers.

揭示社会中庆祝活动的最后一个方面是移民。在这种特殊情况下,移民是指名人利用其名人身份探索其他领域的能力,从而成功地在其他领域冒险,而不是那些使他们成为自己的领域(Barron 2006)。从这个角度讲,有许多名人从最初的职业转向其他职业的成功工作。例如,阿诺德·施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)在确立自己的明星演员地位后,成功地角逐了政治职位。同样,Barron(2006)指出,Elizabeth Hurley以演员和模特的身份而闻名,后来转而从事电影制作。重要的是,移民作为名人的一个概念肯定了名人身份的民主化,因为名人不仅限于一个职业,而且可以自由地转移到其他职业。Barron(2006)确认,这一举措对于帮助名人建立持久的职业生涯是必要的。