发表于:2022-08-17 17:38:53 范文

Introduction 介绍

Gender inequality is one of the issues that have consistently received attention from different sections of society. In the last 50 years, different movements, among them feminism, have emerged with the aim of seeking a redress of gender formation in society and as a such, lay a foundation of elimination of gender inequality in society. Apart from engaging in different actions and discussions, and challenging the government to implement laws and policies that promote equality, gender inequality still persists in society (Risman 82). Whereas one would expect that since the call for gender equality continues to grow loud, elements of gender inequality in society should be less evident, this is not the case. On the contrary, even items that are consumed by the wider public still portray a significant level of gender inequality. Furthermore, there is less criticism that has been directed towards the media for its continued undermining of gender equality in society (Downing 197). One of the questions that emerge regards the factors that support the persistence of gender inequality in society. This research paper explores gender inequality in society and particularly, the gendered media. Arguably, the issue of gender equality is firmly embedded in the socialization processes in society.

性别不平等是社会各阶层一贯关注的问题之一。在过去的50年中,出现了不同的运动,其中包括女权主义,目的是寻求社会性别形成的矫正,从而为消除社会性别不平等奠定了基础。除了参与不同的行动和讨论,挑战政府实施促进平等的法律和政策外,社会中两性不平等现象依然存在(Risman 82)。有人会认为,既然要求两性平等的呼声继续高涨,社会中两性不平等的因素应该不那么明显,但事实并非如此。相反,即使是广大公众消费的商品,也仍然表现出严重的性别不平等。此外,针对媒体继续破坏社会性别平等的批评较少(唐宁197)。出现的问题之一涉及支持社会性别不平等持续存在的因素。这篇研究论文探讨了社会中的性别不平等,特别是性别化的媒体。可以说,两性平等问题牢固地植根于社会的社会化进程中。

Gender inequality in society 社会性别不平等

Gender inequality has penetrated different societal spheres from the family to formal and informal institutions in society. To begin with, researchers and scholars argue that the perceptions towards gender that are seen in adults in society are actual nurtured among people at a family level (Bharadwaj, Dahl and Sheth 1). In this regard, the family in which a person is born and grows plays a critical role in shaping his or her mentality towards different aspects on gender. For example, men who are born in families where their fathers were the sole breadwinner and their mothers were not allowed to seek employment outside their homes are likely to promote gender inequality as far as employment is concerned. This is as a result of the notion that has been nurtured in their lives that women are not supposed to work in order to support themselves or the family. On the other hand, a woman who grew up in a family or society that supports women to pursue their dreams and careers is likely to fight for gender equality rights even if the environment in which she lives is male-dominated. This implies that the family background or the society in which a person grows plays a critical role in shaping the perception of individuals towards gender equality.

两性不平等已渗透到从家庭到社会正式和非正式机构的不同社会领域。首先,研究人员和学者认为,社会中成年人对性别的看法实际上是在家庭层面上培养出来的(Bharadwaj、Dahl和Sheth 1)。在这方面,一个人出生和成长的家庭在塑造他或她对性别不同方面的心态方面发挥着关键作用。例如,出生在父亲是养家糊口者、母亲不允许外出就业的家庭中的男子,就就业而言,很可能助长两性不平等。这是因为在她们的生活中形成了一种观念,即妇女不应该为了养活自己或家庭而工作。另一方面,在支持妇女追求梦想和职业的家庭或社会中长大的妇女可能会争取两性平等权利,即使她生活的环境是男性主导的。这意味着一个人成长的家庭背景或社会在塑造个人对两性平等的看法方面起着关键作用。

Gender equality affects to a significant level the division of labor at a family level. Past studies reveal that the disadvantaged sex in the family was likely to be assigned house chores while the dominant sex at this level was likely to seek for formal employment (Rainer 305). Arguing from this point of view, there is a need to examine the gender that is most affected as far as division of labor at a family level is concerned. An analysis of different societies across the globe reveal that women are the most affected as far as labor discrimination along genders line a family unit is concerned. In this regard, research indicates that in most societies, men are the main decision-makers and as such, their decisions as far as labor division in the home is concerned are often discriminatory in nature towards women (Rainer 307). Therefore, when making such decisions, women are often restricted in different ways from engaging in activities that could enhance their chances of working in formal employment. On the contrary, they are men often assign women household chores and restrict women to homes while they choose to work outside their homes.

两性平等在很大程度上影响家庭一级的分工。过去的研究表明,家庭中处于不利地位的性别很可能被指派做家务,而这一级别的主导性别很可能寻求正式就业(Rainer 305)。从这一观点出发,有必要研究在家庭层面上劳动分工受影响更大的性别。对全球不同社会的分析表明,就家庭单位的性别歧视而言,妇女受影响更大。在这方面,研究表明,在大多数社会中,男子是主要的决策者,因此,就家庭分工而言,他们的决定往往具有歧视妇女的性质(Rainer 307)。因此,在作出这种决定时,妇女往往以不同的方式受到限制,不能从事能够增加其正式就业机会的活动。相反,他们是男性,通常会指派女性做家务,当她们选择在家外工作时,会将她们限制在家里。