One of the sources that this paper examines that has extensively covered the positive side of video games in society is the article, Video games and mental health: ‘Nobody's properly talking’ by Alysia Judge, which was published on the BBC websites on July 14, 2018. To begin with, Alysia employs emotional appeal as a way to persuade her target audience on her position that video games are helps, and as such, manages to contradict the notion that video games have a negative impact on society. To begin with, Alysia persuasive appeal in her article as a way to convince the audience that indeed video games have a positive impact on society. For instance, she uses logos to appeal to her audience who could be interested in evidence that indicated that video games are beneficial to the society. Researchers and scholars observe that the use of logos in persuasive appeal focuses on appealing to reason mainly with rationality, facts and evidence (Higgins and Walker 198). Speaking from this point of view, there is a need to observe that Alysia appeals to logos by providing evidence on the positive impacts of video games from people who have experience in the video game industry either as researchers or video game producers. For example, Alysia notes that in a research that was conducted by Andy Przybylski, an Oxford University’s Internet Institute director, it was established that only 0.3 percent of video game players might get addicted to these games. Similarly, Alysia cites Laura Kate Dale from Kotaku UK, a gaming website, who reiterates that video games provides a platform for storytelling, thus enabling them address different themes on issues that affect the society such as mental health and suicide. Note that by citing evidence from people in different positions in society, Alysia seeks to appeal to the intellect of her audience and as such, prove that video games have a positive impact on society.
本文调查的其中一个广泛涵盖了电子游戏在社会中的积极一面的来源是由Alysia Judge撰写的文章《电子游戏与心理健康：没人说话正常》，该文章于2018年7月14日在BBC网站上发表。首先，Alysia利用情感诉求来说服目标受众，让他们相信电子游戏是有帮助的，因此，她成功地反驳了电子游戏对社会有负面影响的观点。首先，Alysia在她的文章中具有说服力的吸引力，以使观众相信电子游戏确实对社会有积极的影响。例如，她使用徽标吸引观众，他们可能对表明电子游戏有益于社会的证据感兴趣。研究人员和学者们观察到，在说服性诉求中使用逻各斯的重点是诉诸理性，主要是理性、事实和证据（希金斯和沃克198）。从这个角度讲，需要注意的是，Alysia通过提供证据证明视频游戏的积极影响，吸引了在视频游戏行业有经验的研究人员或视频游戏制作人。例如，艾丽西亚指出，牛津大学互联网研究所所长安迪·普兹比尔斯基（Andy Przybylski）进行的一项研究表明，只有0.3%的视频游戏玩家可能会对这些游戏上瘾。类似地，Alysia引用了游戏网站Kotaku UK的劳拉·凯特·戴尔（Laura Kate Dale）的话，她重申视频游戏提供了一个讲故事的平台，从而使他们能够在影响社会的问题上处理不同的主题，如心理健康和自杀。请注意，通过引用社会上处于不同地位的人的证据，Alysia试图吸引观众的智慧，从而证明电子游戏对社会有积极的影响。
Apart from appealing to logos, there is a need to observe that Alysia seeks to appeals to ethos through building the credibility of her research and findings. Researchers and scholars observe that ethos refers to the persona of the speaker and includes elements such as his or her appearance, trustworthiness and credibility (Demirdöğen 191; Higgins and Walker 197). In this regard, it simply refers to the authority that the speaker has towards the topic under discussion. With this in mind, one of the researchers who provide evidence that Alysia uses to back up her argument is Andy Przybylski, an Oxford University’s Internet Institute director. Note that as a director of an institute at Oxford University, Przybylski can be perceived as a credible and trustworthy source of evidence that video games have little impact on society. Therefore, by quoting Przybylski, Alysia manages to enhance the credibility and trustworthiness of her findings on the impact of video games on society. Similarly, to enhance the credibility of her findings, this authors quotes Laura Kate Dale from gaming website Kotaku UK (Alysia 2018). However, whereas Dale has experience in the video game industry and could be right in arguing that video games provide a platform for storytelling and help address different societal problems such as mental health and suicide, her evidence undermine the credibility and trustworthiness of Alysia’s work. This is because as a person who has vested interested in the video game industry, she cannot be trusted to provide evidence that could undermine the industry in which she works. In other words, it is difficult for Dale to argue that video games have a negative impact on society even if such evidence existed. Therefore, through these use of Dale’s evidence in her work, Alysia undermines her ability to appeal to ethos. Whereas this is the case, Alysia manages to appeal to pathos by arousing the emotions of her audience. Notably, pathos is perceived as the ability of the speaker to appeal to the will, emotions or passions of the target audience (Demirdöğen 192). For instance, at the beginning of her article, after pointing out that most arguments promote the aspect that video games have a negative impact, she notes, “But there's another side to the story” (Alysia 2018).
除了诉诸于标识，还需要注意的是，Alysia试图通过建立其研究和发现的可信度来诉诸于民族精神。研究人员和学者观察到，民族精神指的是演讲者的角色，包括他或她的外表、可信度和可信度等要素（Demirdöen 191；Higgins和Walker 197）。在这方面，它只是指演讲者对所讨论的议题拥有的权威。考虑到这一点，牛津大学互联网研究所所长安迪·普兹比尔斯基（Andy Przybylski）是研究人员中的一位，她提供了阿丽西亚用来支持自己观点的证据。请注意，作为牛津大学一所研究所的所长，普兹比尔斯基可以被视为一个可信和值得信赖的证据来源，证明电子游戏对社会影响甚微。因此，通过引用Przybylski的话，Alysia设法提高了她关于电子游戏对社会影响的研究结果的可信度和可信度。同样，为了提高她的研究结果的可信度，本文作者引用了游戏网站Kotaku UK（Alysia 2018）的劳拉·凯特·戴尔（Laura Kate Dale）的话。然而，尽管戴尔在电子游戏行业有丰富的经验，并且认为电子游戏提供了一个讲故事的平台，有助于解决不同的社会问题，如心理健康和自杀，但她的证据破坏了艾丽西亚工作的可信度和可信度。这是因为作为一个对视频游戏行业感兴趣的人，她不能被信任提供可能破坏她所在行业的证据。换句话说，戴尔很难辩称电子游戏对社会有负面影响，即使有这样的证据存在。因此，通过在工作中使用戴尔的证据，艾莉西亚削弱了她诉诸社会风气的能力。然而事实就是这样，艾莉西亚通过唤起观众的情绪，成功地诉诸于悲情。值得注意的是，悲情被认为是演讲者吸引目标受众的意愿、情感或激情的能力（Demirdöen 192）。例如，在她文章的开头，在指出大多数观点都强调电子游戏有负面影响后，她指出，“但故事还有另一面”（Alysia 2018）。