发表于:2022-08-17 17:38:59 范文

Importantly, an analysis of Julius Caesar’s rise to power reveals that the Senate had been unable to take charge and effectively rule in the Roman republic. Scholars observe that prior to rising to power, military commanders used their military to propagate and nurture their political ambitions without necessarily focusing on addressing the issues the bedevilled the Roman republic (Perry et al. 2016, p.134). Speaking from this point of view, the failure by the Senate and other republican institutions to effectively operate were the main factors that motivated Caesar to rise to power using the military. He hoped that through ascending to the highest level of power, he would be in a position to restore sanity to the already deteriorating political, social and economic conditions of the Roman republic (Appian 2018). However, to the Senate, he was a threat to their authority and power. Despite their fears, it is evident that the Senate had already lost its significance long before Caesar was bestowed upon the office of a dictator, a legal office that was supposed to last for ten years (Perry et al. 2016, p.135). Furthermore, upon receiving the office of a dictator, Caesar did not act in any way in an oppressive manner against the Romans. On the contrary, scholars cite that he reduced taxes, improved governance by making governors answerable to him, and restrained ruthless businessmen from mercilessly squandering public wealth (Perry et al. 2016, p.135). Therefore, it is evident that there was no element of oppression against his citizens in his leadership and as such, it was premature for the senators to assassinate him with the arguments that he had intentions of establishing a tyranny and overthrowing the Senate.

重要的是,对朱利叶斯·凯撒掌权的分析表明,参议院无法在罗马共和国掌权并有效统治。学者们观察到,在掌权之前,军事指挥官利用军队来宣传和培养他们的政治野心,而不必专注于解决困扰罗马共和国的问题(Perry等人,2016年,第134页)。从这个角度讲,参议院和其他共和党机构未能有效运作是促使凯撒利用军队掌权的主要因素。他希望通过提升到更高权力级别,他将能够恢复罗马共和国已经恶化的政治、社会和经济状况的理智(Appian 2018)。然而,对参议院来说,他是对他们权威和权力的威胁。尽管他们担心,但很明显,在凯撒被授予独裁者职位之前,参议院早已失去了它的重要性,这一法律职位本应持续十年(Perry等人,2016年,第135页)。此外,凯撒在获得独裁者的职位后,并没有以任何方式对罗马人采取压迫性的行动。相反,学者们指出,他降低了税收,通过让州长对他负责来改善治理,并阻止无情的商人无情地挥霍公共财富(Perry et al.2016,第135页)。因此,很明显,他的领导层中没有对其公民进行压迫的成分,因此,参议员们以他意图建立暴政和推翻参议院的论据暗杀他还为时过早。

In addition to this, there is a need to observe that Caesar’s rise to a dictator was not enshrined in his military prowess and his insatiable appetite for power. On the contrary, as his fame increased throughout the Roman republic, the constitution was reformed in order to grant him certain authority and power to achieve his objectives of reforming the Roman republic. For instance, the dictatorship office was granted to him through a constitutional legislation and this was only for a specific period rather than for the rest of his life (Scullard 1982, p.148). This is further emphasised by Plutarch (2018) who observe that after his victories, the Senators granted him the office of a dictator. Speaking from this point of view, the arguments of the senators that Caesar would overthrow the Senate and establish a tyranny had no basis considering the fact that they have willingly participated in the process of bestowing more power and authority to him. Notably, they could have rejected the idea of granting Caesar the office of dictatorship rather than granting it to him and then lamenting that it threatened the office of the Senate.

除此之外,还需要注意的是,凯撒崛起为独裁者并不是因为他的军事实力和对权力的贪得无厌。相反,随着他的声望在整个罗马共和国的提高,宪法进行了改革,以授予他一定的权力和权力,实现他改革罗马共和国的目标。例如,独裁职位是通过宪法立法授予他的,这只是一个特定时期,而不是他的余生(Scullard 1982,第148页)。普卢塔克(2018)进一步强调了这一点,他观察到,在普卢塔克获胜后,参议员授予他独裁者的职位。从这个角度讲,参议员们认为凯撒将推翻参议院并建立暴政的论点是没有根据的,因为他们自愿参与了赋予凯撒更多权力和权威的过程。值得注意的是,他们本可以拒绝让凯撒担任独裁职位的想法,而不是让他担任独裁职位,然后哀叹这威胁到了参议院的职位。

In conclusion, despite the conspirators murdering Caesar, he had not harboured any intentions of establishing a tyranny and as such, they were wrong in their judgment and their actions that led to his assassination. Apart from the failure to operate effectively thus creating a platform for military commanders to do as they wished to enhance their political journey, the Senate played a key role in bestowing more power and authority upon Caesar. Furthermore, Caesar had been instrumental in restoring law and order in the Roman republic, and rather the embracing his radical reforms, the Senate perceive them as a threat to its office. Therefore, the conspirators were not right to murder Julius Caesar because he was not a threat to them.