With regard to media audience, there are different aspects that researchers and scholars across the globe continue to raise on the relationship between video games and the target audience. Arguably, most of the past research and studies on video games focus on the impact they have on their target audience. As a form of media, video games are perceived to have both positive and negative impacts on their target audience. For instance, there are numerous research and studies that indicate that video games have a number of positive effects on players including cognitive, social, motivational and emotional effects (Granic, Lobel and Engels 66). In this case, these researchers observe that individuals who played video games had enhanced mental rotational abilities, enhanced level of continuous effort and persistence to achieve success, and improved mood and positive emotional experiences (Granic, Lobel and Engels 68). In addition to this, the findings in this study reveal that with the advancement in technology, there is an increase in development of multiplayer games that allow multiple people to play together and compete against each other, thus promoting social cohesion among them (Granic, Lobel and Engels 73). In this case, there is a significant emphasis on the fact that video games no negative social impacts on their target audience but rather through playing together in a multiplayer environment, the media audience, in this case video game players, are able to develop social skills that improve how they interact with other people.
关于媒体受众，全球的研究人员和学者们不断从不同的角度提出视频游戏与目标受众之间的关系。可以说，过去大多数关于视频游戏的研究都集中在它们对目标受众的影响上。作为一种媒体形式，视频游戏被认为对目标受众既有积极的影响，也有消极的影响。例如，有大量研究表明，电子游戏对玩家有许多积极影响，包括认知、社会、动机和情感影响（Granic、Lobel和Engels 66）。在这种情况下，这些研究人员观察到，玩电子游戏的人具有更强的心理旋转能力，增强了获得成功的持续努力和毅力，改善了情绪和积极的情绪体验（Granic、Lobel和Engels 68）。除此之外，这项研究的发现表明，随着技术的进步，多人游戏的发展越来越多，允许多人一起玩并相互竞争，从而促进他们之间的社会凝聚力（Granic、Lobel和Engels 73）。在这种情况下，人们非常重视这样一个事实，即视频游戏不会对其目标受众产生负面的社会影响，而是通过在多人环境中一起玩，媒体受众（在这种情况下是视频游戏玩家）能够发展社交技能，从而改善他们与其他人的互动方式。
Despite the positive effects that are associated with playing video games among the target media audience, there is a need to observe that these games have also been associated with negative effects. In particular, a significant level of violence among the young people as well as the growing negative vices in society is attributed to the increase in video games that promote violence and other negative vices. For example, there are growing concerns that video games that have violence as their central theme promote violence and bullying behaviour among children and adolescents in society (Ferguson and Olson 127). In this regard, there are concerns that video games have a way to connect emotionally with the target audience and as such, continued exposure to violence in these games often motivate their audience to engage in violence activities in real life. For example, a Russian game ‘Blue Whale’ gave complex tasks to players daily over a period of several weeks, with the last task being encouraging the player to commit suicide (Hyrynsalmi, Smed and Kimppa 1). In this regard, these researchers who argue that video games have a negative impact on the target audience promote the fact that these games have the capability to gain a fully control over players, and as such, are capable of manipulating them to engage in negative behaviour and vice in society. From a media audience perspective, the video game players are constructed as passive as far as their relations to video games is concerned and as such, they are susceptible to both positive and negative effects of video games (Grodal 155). From a social learning theory perspective, learning is a cognitive process that occurs when a person observes or takes instructions on a certain phenomenon in his or her social environment (Hanna, Crittenden and Crittenden 19). With this in mind, there is an inclination towards the argument that continued exposure to violence and other social vices in video games is likely to create an environment for learning through observation and taking instructions, which could easily be replicated in the real world of the player.
尽管在目标媒体受众中玩电子游戏会产生积极影响，但需要注意的是，这些游戏也会产生消极影响。尤其是，年轻人中的暴力行为以及社会上日益严重的消极恶习，都归因于助长暴力和其他消极恶习的电子游戏的增加。例如，越来越多的人担心，以暴力为中心主题的电子游戏会在社会儿童和青少年中助长暴力和欺凌行为（Ferguson和Olson 127）。在这方面，有人担心，电子游戏有一种与目标受众建立情感联系的方式，因此，在这些游戏中持续接触暴力往往会促使其受众参与现实生活中的暴力活动。例如，一款俄罗斯游戏“蓝鲸”在几周内每天都给玩家布置复杂的任务，最后一项任务是鼓励玩家自杀（Hyrynsalmi、Smed和Kimppa 1）。在这方面，这些认为电子游戏对目标受众有负面影响的研究人员认为，这些游戏能够完全控制玩家，因此能够操纵玩家进行负面行为和社会恶习。从媒体受众的角度来看，就其与视频游戏的关系而言，视频游戏玩家是被动的，因此，他们容易受到视频游戏的积极和消极影响（Grodal 155）。从社会学习理论的角度来看，学习是一种认知过程，当一个人在他或她的社会环境中观察或接受某一现象的指示时，就会发生这种认知过程（Hanna、Critenden和Critenden 19）。考虑到这一点，有人倾向于这样一种观点，即在视频游戏中持续暴露于暴力和其他社会恶习可能会创造一种通过观察和接受指令进行学习的环境，这种环境很容易在玩家的真实世界中复制。
Whereas this is the case, there is a need to observe that as the modern world changes with respect to aspects such as technology and social integration and empowerment, there is an emergence of video game players who play an active role in influencing how these games and developed, distributed and played across the globe. For instance, there is a significant increase in demand for video games that portray realism and promote interactivity across the globe (McGloin, Farrar and Krcmar 65). In this case, video games that were incapable of portraying reality and promoting interactivity through features such as multiple players were likely to receive low attention as compared to video games that have these features. Apart from these, studies also reveal that video game players in different parts of the globe are increasingly demanding the localisation of these games with a focus on aspects such as language and the heroes portrayed therein (Costales 226). In other words, rather than playing video games that use foreign language and portray heroes from a different culture, video game players have increased their demand for games that portray heroes from their own cultural perspectives and use their own indigenous language as the main language of communication in these games. In other cases, video game producers are forced to portray the local terrain and environment in order to attract the attention of players from a particular market. This is consistent with the active audience theory in the sense that the video game players across the globe have begun defining their own experience with the games they play, and as such, they have the power to choose what video games to play and to what extent.
鉴于这种情况，有必要观察到，随着现代世界在技术、社会融合和授权等方面的变化，出现了视频游戏玩家，他们在影响这些游戏在全球的开发、分发和玩方面发挥了积极作用。例如，在全球范围内，对描绘真实感并促进互动性的视频游戏的需求显著增加（McGloin、Farrar和Krcmar 65）。在这种情况下，与具有这些功能的视频游戏相比，无法通过多个玩家等功能描绘现实和促进互动的视频游戏可能会受到较低的关注。除此之外，研究还表明，全球不同地区的视频游戏玩家越来越要求这些游戏本地化，重点关注语言和其中所描绘的英雄等方面（Costales 226）。换言之，与玩使用外语和描绘不同文化英雄的电子游戏不同，电子游戏玩家增加了对游戏的需求，这些游戏从他们自己的文化角度描绘英雄，并使用他们自己的土著语言作为这些游戏中的主要交流语言。在其他情况下，视频游戏制作人被迫描绘当地的地形和环境，以吸引特定市场玩家的注意力。这与积极受众理论是一致的，因为全球的视频游戏玩家已经开始定义他们自己玩游戏的体验，因此，他们有权选择玩什么视频游戏以及玩到什么程度。
One of the questions that emerge regards how media audience and technology connects with each other through video games. To begin with, there is a need to observe that technology plays a critical role in enabling the target audience across the globe to satisfy their desires as far as entertainment is concerned. Arguably, from media audiences perspective, among the critical roles and objective of the media includes social interaction, diversion and entertainment. Furthermore, due to the fact that most video game consumers are turning from being passive to active, technology plays a critical role in helping satisfy these needs. For example, video games players who need interaction as a way of gaining satisfaction relies different elements of creating and sustaining interaction in video games as well as technology such as the internet to connect and interact with other players from different cultural and social backgrounds across the globe. Speaking from this perspective, there is a need to observe that these roles and objective of the media are achieved whereby video games as a form of media relies on technology to not only develop their content, but also distribute such content across the globe to the target audience.
In conclusion, media audiences and technology connects with each other through the establishment of a mutualism symbiotic relationship whereby each depends on the other for its influence on the target audience. On one hand, technology is increasingly becoming depended on the understanding of the target media audience in order to develop different products and services that meet the needs of the target audience. For example, through an understanding of the fact that video game consumers are increasingly requiring interactive gaming platform, technology is able to deploy different innovative solutions to develop gaming products that addressing these needs. On the other hand, the media is highly dependent on technology such as the internet and social media to reach out to the media audiences in this case of the gaming video industry. Moreover, technology plays a critical role in relaying feedback from the audience as well as providing a platform for improvement of the media content. Thus, rather than working independently of each other, the media audiences and technology work hand in hand with each other.