Apart from the slave mode of production, another mode of production if feudalism. The feudal system was made up of a hierarchy that comprised the peasants at the lowest level, and the monarch at the highest level. With this in mind, the monarch, that is the king, would grant land to the baron in exchange for military service and money (Anderson 1975). Since the baron did not have the military service, he granted the land he had from the king to the knights in exchange for military service and protection. However, since the knight did not till the land, he granted it to the peasant. The peasant in turn provided the knight with the food and other services as the need arose.
Moreover, being the last person on the hierarchy, the peasant related to the land through tilling and making it productive. One of the most important aspects concerning feudalism is the fact that whereas the peasants were not enslaved, their movement was restricted to the land they had been given since they were expected to provide food and other services to the knights within specified time (Anderson 1975). Furthermore, to sustain the system, those who were at the top of the hierarchy exploited those who were below them, with a promise of providing them with protection.
Apart from feudalism, capitalism is another mode of production that has gained significant popularity across the globe even to this day. Under capitalism, the means of production belongs to private entities and as such, they are treated as private property (Elster 1984). Speaking from this point of view, one has a right to buy and sell property under this mode of production. One of the peculiar aspects capitalism is the fact that contrary to what one would expect, not everyone owns property. Therefore, whereas the peasants are not categorised as serfs, they still have to sell their labour to people who own property in society in order to sustain their lives. In line with this, despite the fact that capitalism promotes some sense of freedom as far as buying and selling property is concerned, there is a need to observe it continues to promote the exploitation of the labourers in society because they do not have a right to property. Furthermore, the labourers livelihood hangs on the balance in the sense that their labour or rather service can be rejected by the property owners in cases where such owners have introduced machines to promote efficiency and a high level of productivity (Elster 1984). In addition to this, there is a need to observe that from an economic perspective, capitalism promote economic growth not only in acquisition of new territories but also in improvement in the service sector and acquisition of new knowledge, while from a political perspective, governance involves the organisation of masses based on a representative system.
除封建主义外，资本主义是另一种生产方式，至今在全球范围内仍广受欢迎。在资本主义制度下，生产资料属于私人实体，因此被视为私人财产（Elster 1984）。从这个角度来说，在这种生产方式下，一个人有权买卖财产。资本主义的一个特殊方面是，与人们所期望的相反，不是每个人都拥有财产。因此，虽然农民没有被归类为农奴，但他们仍然必须将劳动卖给社会上拥有财产的人，以维持他们的生活。与此相一致，尽管资本主义在买卖财产方面促进了某种自由感，但有必要观察到，它继续促进社会对劳动者的剥削，因为他们没有财产权。此外，劳工的生计处于平衡状态，因为如果业主引进机器以提高效率和高生产力，他们的劳动或服务可能会被业主拒绝（Elster 1984）。除此之外，还需要注意的是，从经济角度来看，资本主义不仅在获取新界方面促进了经济增长，而且在改善服务业和获取新知识方面也促进了经济增长，而从政治角度来看，治理涉及以代表制为基础的群众组织。
Other modes of production include industrial and post-industrial modes. Notably, the industrial mode focuses on integrating men and machines into the production system in order to improve the level of productivity as well as efficiency. In this production, men rely on different machines to make their work easier, thus enabling them to increase their productivity levels (Bell 1973). On the other hand, the post-industrial society satisfies their needs through engaging in knowledge development as well as the shifting away from agrarian activities to the development of the economy that almost entirely relies on the service industry for its growth and development (Bell 1973). Therefore, in such a society, technology and innovation plays an instrumental role in helping meet the needs of people who live within it.
其他生产模式包括工业和后工业模式。值得注意的是，工业模式侧重于将人和机器整合到生产系统中，以提高生产率和效率。在这种生产中，人们依靠不同的机器使他们的工作更容易，从而使他们能够提高生产力水平（Bell 1973）。另一方面，后工业社会通过参与知识开发以及从农业活动转向几乎完全依赖服务业增长和发展的经济发展来满足其需求（Bell 1973）。因此，在这样一个社会中，技术和创新在帮助满足生活在其中的人们的需求方面发挥着重要作用。