Question 1 问题
One of the greatest structural issue that arise during a merger emanate from the differences in organisational culture. In reference to Martins and Terblanche (2003), the structure of a particular business or organisation is core foundation upon which its organisation culture is based on. In this case, the structure in place plays an instrumental role in promoting certain values that define how the business or organisation in question operates. Therefore, in a merger, organisational cultural problems often emerge when merging two organisational structures. While the companies involved in a merger might have similar organisational structures, this does not imply they function in a similar way. On the contrary, Robbins, DeCenzo, Coulter and Woods (2013) affirm that despite the similarity in organisational structure, each organisation maintains a unique culture that defines how it operates. For example, in the case of Indigo Books and Music, its mergers involved merging three companies together and as such, its ability to function properly depended heavily on its ability to merge and harmonise the organisational cultures from the three companies.
合并过程中出现的更大结构性问题之一源自组织文化的差异。关于马丁斯和特布兰奇（2003），一个特定的企业或组织的结构是其组织文化建立的核心基础。在这种情况下，现有的结构在促进某些价值观方面起着重要作用，这些价值观定义了相关企业或组织的运作方式。因此，在合并中，当合并两个组织结构时，往往会出现组织文化问题。虽然参与合并的公司可能有类似的组织结构，但这并不意味着它们以类似的方式运作。相反，Robbins、Decezo、Coulter和Woods（2013）确认，尽管组织结构相似，但每个组织都保持着一种独特的文化，定义了其运作方式。例如，在Indigo Books and Music的案例中，其合并涉及将三家公司合并在一起，因此，其正常运作的能力在很大程度上取决于其合并和协调三家公司的组织文化的能力。
Apart from the organisational culture, another structural issue that two or more organisations in a merger need to address is communication. To begin with, the organisational structure that is adopted to support the merger could undermine consistency and coherence of communication within the organisation. In reference to Hoogervorst, van der Flier and Koopman (2004), the major factors that promote the lack of coherence and consistency in communication in an organisation after a merger emanates from the fact that the organisational structure of each organisation in the merger was developed independent of each other and as such, its communication structures and processes functions in different ways independent of each other. Therefore, during the merger, these structures, if not addressed are likely to continue promoting a communication processes that does not support the objectives and aims of the merger.
Similarly, another organisational issue that mergers need to address is creating a connection among the employees of the merged organisations. Notably, employees from different organisations within a merger need to adapt to the newly established interrelationships (Piekkari, Vaara, Tienari and Säntti 2005). If the issue of connecting employees from the two or more mergers is not addressed, this could lead to a complete collapse of the formed organisational structure, thus making it difficult to manage the newly formed organisation. For example, an organisation such as Indigo Books and Music with a functional structure needs to address the problem of connectedness among its employees thus ensuring that aspects such as departmentalisation and specialisation does not affect the ability of its employees to collaborate, thus affecting its performance objectives.