Similarly, there is a need to observe that Changchun City will be full dependent on renewable energy by 2050. Arguably, whereas the city has witnessed an increase in the number of people who are connected to its natural and artificial gas grid, this number will reach 100 percent by 2050 (Foreign Affairs Office of Changchun Municipality, 2017b). This is particularly the case considering the fact that by this time, the construction of building will fully consider the power and energy that its residents will use, thus making a choice between electricity and gas in the early stages of its development. Therefore, to ensure that people’s experience is not interfered with, every building in this city will have a backup energy plan, by integrating both electricity and gas as energy supply for buildings. Importantly, the city will rely more on electricity from nuclear power plants rather than from renewable such as solar. This is as a result of the fact that this city often experiences severe winters during some seasons of the year, thus making the solar energy an unreliable source of electricity (Satake, 2012). Importantly, whereas a significant portion of the city’s waste is recycled while the rest is treated to acceptable standards and released into the environment, the 2050 Changchun City will have a 100 percent recycling of its waste (Foreign Affairs Office of Changchun Municipality, 2017a). This will help ensure that there is close to zero percent pollution to its environment.
In addition, Changchun City will have different facilities and amenities to support this city’s capability to not only promote leisure activities but also be in a position to host both local and international events. To begin with, this city will increase the number of its stadiums to enhance its capability to host both indoor and outdoor events. In reference to Avery (2014), whereas the city concentrated on hosting indoor events in the past, this has since changed. On the contrary, the city has witnessed and increased interest in hosting outdoor events such as football and athletics. Speaking from this point of view, the city will have more than eight stadiums to enable it host different leisure and sporting events, both local and international. Apart from these facilities, the city will also increase its learning facilities not only at a higher education level but also at a basic education level. In reference to Foreign Affairs Office of Changchun Municipality (2017c), one of the main objectives of this city is to enhance its engagement in science and technology through education. Therefore, by 2050, the city will have learning facilities that promote development and sharing of knowledge as well as research hubs and universities to promote the development of scientific knowledge and skills.
Overview of eventful cities and event portfolios as a strategy 作为一项战略的重大事件城市和事件组合概述
Over the years, cities have emerged as critical economic pillars in countries across the globe. As a result of this, cities worldwide are increasingly channeling their strengths towards presenting themselves as more attractive as compared to their neighbors in a bid to attract visitors. Speaking from this point of view, Smith (2012) argues that events play an instrumental role in helping market cities to potential visitors and investors across the globe. In this case, events are perceived as a way to attract both visitors and potential investors and once they come to such cities, they would find reasons to either engage in different activities thus helping generate revenue for the residents and the city at large, or they would find the city attractive to invest in because of its potential to attract both local and international visitors. In their analysis on city and events, van Aalst and van Melik (2012) reiterate that events play a critical role in attracting the attention of the media, thus enabling cities to become renown not only within a particular economy but also on the international scene. According to van Aalst and van Melik (2012), this is necessary to attract different kinds of visitors and as such, boost the economic status of the city. Thus, events are perceived as a conduit for economic growth and development in cities. In other words, events are not only expected to bring a particular city into the limelight but also to help such a city generate revenue.
多年来，城市已成为全球各国重要的经济支柱。因此，为了吸引游客，世界各地的城市越来越多地将自己的优势引导到比邻居更具吸引力的地方。从这一观点出发，Smith（2012）认为，活动在帮助市场城市吸引全球潜在游客和投资者方面发挥了重要作用。在这种情况下，活动被视为吸引游客和潜在投资者的一种方式，一旦他们来到这些城市，他们就会找到从事不同活动的理由，从而帮助居民和整个城市创造收入，或者，他们会发现这座城市具有投资吸引力，因为它有潜力吸引本地和国际游客。van Aalst和van Melik（2012）在对城市和事件的分析中重申，事件在吸引媒体注意力方面发挥着关键作用，从而使城市不仅在特定经济体中，而且在国际舞台上享有盛名。根据van Aalst和van Melik（2012年）的说法，这对于吸引不同类型的游客以及提升城市的经济地位是必要的。因此，活动被视为城市经济增长和发展的渠道。换言之，活动不仅会让某个城市成为人们关注的焦点，还能帮助这座城市创造收入。
Similarly, it is expected that as the cities host different events and attract visitors both from within the economy as well as from the international scene, they will promote social, cultural, economic and political interactions, thus promoting sharing of knowledge and culture and as such, laying a foundation for improvement of the quality of life of the local people. In this regard, Richards and Palmer (2010) observe that through interactions, people from different cultural background can have a significant impact on the lives of the local people, thus helping them improve their quality of life. With this in mind, it is expected that the local social, cultural, economic and political environment will experience a significant transformation through consistent interaction with people from other countries through the events that a city hosts.
In their analysis the expected benefits of future events, Kline and Oliver (2014) uses the Community Capital Framework to evaluate different form of capitals that exist in cities. The Community Capital Framework identifies seven forms of capitals namely natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built capital. To begin with, Kline and Oliver (2014) describe the natural capital as the natural and other location-based resources that cities have. With this in mind, this form of capital focused on the unique resources that a location has that may not be found elsewhere. For example, waterfalls are found in some regions while others lack such resources. Similarly, Kline and Oliver (2014) describe cultural capital as the heritage that a particular region has, while the human capital is described as the skills and abilities that people living in a particular region possess. In the same way, the social capital and the political capital are perceived as the link between institutions and people that held them to collaborate, and the level of accessibility to people of greater influence is society respectively (Kline & Oliver, 2014). In addition to this, Kline and Oliver (2014) observe that the built capital and the financial capital feature aspects such as infrastructure as well as financial resources that play a critical role in community develop. Speaking from this point of view, there is a need to observe that the future cities will exploit one or a multiple of these capitals to host and promote events, thus enhancing their ability to attract a wide array of visitors. For instance, cities could exploit aspect such as financial and human capital to promote a city as a destination for investment. In line with this, such a city will host events that showcase the portfolio of its skills as well as the financial muscles to support investment in different sectors within it.
Whereas this is the case, researchers and scholars agree that not all events guarantee that a city will experience a positive change. One of the greatest challenges of creating eventful cities is the fact that whereas such events have a potential to attract a large number of visitors, their economic value cannot be guaranteed both in the short run and long run. For instance, Ziakas (2014) observe that whereas a city can invest heavily in planning and preparation to host an event, this does not necessarily imply that the city will recoup back its investments and generate surplus revenue from the event in question. This is further emphasized in the argument that whereas events could be beneficial in the short run to a particular city, such benefits cannot be guaranteed in the long run. For example, Zimbalist (2016) observe that whereas the Bird’s Nest stadium in Beijing played a key role in hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and cost approximately $400 million to build, the venue has struggled so far to fill space during events, thus becoming a liability to the city of Beijing rather than an asset. Therefore, as Getz and Page (2016) emphasize, maintenance costs of the facility that hosts an event in a city could be prohibitive in the long, thus eliminating all the benefits that such a city gains from hosting an event.