In his analysis on whether meaning in messages still carry specific discourse or ideologies, Oh (2016) explores the performance of American women artists and how they appropriated Japanese femininity. Speaking from this perspective, Oh (2016) notes that through the use of Orientalist imagery and appreciating Japanese femininity, American singers such as Katy Perry and Avril Lavign created a platform for these artists to leverage their nationality, race and class and as such not only exercise power of Japanese artists but also exercise enjoy the privileges that were denied to them in the United States as women. In this regards, through their performances, the Japanese audience perceived that their feminism culture was appreciated even by foreigners. However, through decoding the meaning of these artists in this way, they ceded their authority to these artists and as such, they were condemned to a place of being perceive consumers of ideology of feminism and freedom for women from an American perspective. This means that the media often has a certain meaning that it desires to be decoded in a certain way in order to gain power over the target audience.
在分析信息中的含义是否仍然带有特定的话语或意识形态时，探讨了美国女艺术家的表现以及她们如何利用日本女性特质。从这个角度讲，Oh（2016）指出，通过使用东方主义意象和欣赏日本女性气质，凯蒂·佩里（Katy Perry）和艾薇儿·拉维恩（Avril Lavign）等美国歌手为这些艺术家创造了一个平台，让他们利用自己的国籍，种族和阶级不仅行使着日本艺术家的权力，而且还行使着她们作为女性在美国被剥夺的特权。在这方面，通过他们的表演，日本观众意识到他们的女权主义文化甚至被外国人所欣赏。然而，通过以这种方式解读这些艺术家的意义，他们将自己的权威拱手让给了这些艺术家，因此，从美国的角度来看，他们被谴责为女权主义意识形态和女性自由的消费者。这意味着媒体通常具有某种意义，即它希望以某种方式被解码，以便获得对目标受众的权力。
Theoretical frame 理论框架
In order to better understand whether dominant discourse or ideologies still persist in the globalised media, there is a need to consider the encoding/decoding model of communication, which was developed in 1973 by Stuart Hall (Shaw, 2017). In his evaluation of this model, Shaw (2017) observes that there are there are three ways in which the receiver of a message might decode it namely preserving the meaning of the message when decoding it, decoding part of the message with the intended meaning from the send while rejecting the other part of the meaning, and lastly, decoding the message in an opposite way contrary to what was intended by the producer. Arguably, the application of this Stuart’s theoretical framework will play a significant role in determining how the modern audience respond to different media texts particularly those that carry specific dominant ideologies. In other words, this model will help explain whether the target audience remain passive in their consumption of meaning in messages and as such, accept the message fully or whether the modern audience rejects some specific meaning in such messages (Bødker, 2016; Hodkinson, 2017). Stuart’s model will also be instrumental in helping shed more light on whether there are instances where the audience completely rejects dominant meanings in messages. Importantly, through the application of Stuart’s model to this study, the researcher will be able to establish how factors such as culture and social backgrounds play a critical role in determining how audiences in such environments decode messages. In this case, the researcher will rely on this model to establish whether the growing globalisation of media and the emergence of new social and cultural groups have any significant impacts on the way messages are encoded and decoded in the modern society.
This study will use the case study method to collect and analyse data. In reference to Nair (2010), the case study as an approach method in research depends heavily on numerous sources of data in order to systematically explore events, organisations, groups or individuals, thus giving the researchers insights on a particular phenomenon. Importantly, the study opted for a case study method for a number of reasons. To begin with, the case study methods helps simplify complex issues under study. Similarly, it provides the researcher with an opportunity to study the elements in their natural environment, thus eliminating the biases, errors and/or inconsistencies that could occurs if such elements are taken away from their natural environment (Tsang, 2014). Importantly, the study will analyse social media as a digital interactive text. In particular, the study will consider Facebook as an interactive media text. Arguably, rather than analyse Facebook in its entirety as an interactive media text, the study will select a specific group or rather movement that has been using Facebook to promote its ideologies and champion its course. Therefore, the study will conduct a case study on the Black Lives Matter movement, which has gained significant popularity not only in the United States but also across the globe. With this in mind, the researcher will explore and analyse the messages that are posted on this group’s Facebook page, the responses from different people, that is, those who support and those who oppose the ideologies promoted in the group. Through the analysis of these messages, the researcher will seek to establish whether certain dominant meanings and ideologies still persist in the modern society with a globalised media.