发表于:2022-08-17 17:39:48 范文

Leadership play a critical role in promoting effectiveness and efficiency in organisation. In reference to Larsson and Vinberg (2010), whereas there are different internal and external factors that impact an organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency, leadership is perceived as the main factor that influences organisations to either succeed or fail in the market. In particular, Larsson and Vinberg (2010) points out that the behaviour of leaders influence how employees in organisations behave, how resources are utilised, as well as the strategies that the organisation adopts in its approach to the target market. Thus, leaders and as such leadership play a critical role in defining the internal environment within an organisation, and how people within such an environment function with the aim of attaining specific goals.


Apart from this, leaders play a critical role in influencing how the entire organisation responds to change in the industry in which it operates. To begin with, Millar, Hind and Magala (2012) argue in most organisations, leaders are not only the first people to spot the need for change, but in most of such cases, they are usually the agents of change themselves. In this regard, leaders play a significant role in identifying the change that the organisation they are leading needs. Furthermore, rather than forcing this change on subordinates and employees, the leader leads from the front in adopting and implementing the change (Millar, Hind & Magala, 2012). This does not mean that all leaders lead from the front. On the contrary, leaders who endeavour to bring a meaningful and lasting change in their organisations always lead the implementation of these changes.


General Motors: Case study  通用汽车:案例研究

One of the firms that perceived among the most successful firms in the 20th century is General Electric. General Electric or GE as is popularly referred to attributes a significant portion of its success in the 1990s to its then leader, Jack Welch. Arguably, under the tenure of Welch between 1981 and 1998, GE grew significantly from a market value of $12 billion to a whopping $280 billion. One of the major aspects concerning this company’s success was embedded on its ability to reduce the operational costs and improve efficiency. In 1995 after Welch had been with GE for 14 years, he introduced the concept of Six Sigma in its operations as a way to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the operations of this company, and as such, help it minimise and eventually eliminate defects in its production process. In reference to Basu and Wright (2012), during the adoption and implementation of the Six Sigma concepts in its processes, GE invested $300 million to achieve the desired change. In return, the company managed to save $400 million and $500 million, with an incremental margin of between $100 million and $200 million (Basu & Wright, 2012). Importantly, GE’s success in integrating Six Sigma concepts in its operations is attributed to Jack Welch recognition of the need for change, and his leadership role in the actual implementation of this change.

通用电气公司被认为是20世纪最成功的公司之一。通用电气(GeneralElectric)或通用电气(GE as)被普遍称为20世纪90年代的成功,很大一部分归功于当时的杰克·韦尔奇(JackWelch)。可以说,在1981年至1998年韦尔奇任职期间,通用电气的市值从120亿美元大幅增长至2800亿美元。该公司成功的一个主要方面在于其降低运营成本和提高效率的能力。1995年,韦尔奇在通用电气工作14年后,在其运营中引入了六西格玛的概念,作为提高该公司运营效率和有效性的一种方式,从而帮助其更大限度地减少并最终消除生产过程中的缺陷。参考Basu和Wright(2012),在其流程中采用和实施六西格玛概念的过程中,GE投资3亿美元以实现预期的变化。作为回报,该公司成功节省了4亿至5亿美元,增量利润在1亿至2亿美元之间(Basu&Wright,2012)。重要的是,通用电气在将六西格玛概念整合到其运营中的成功归功于杰克·韦尔奇(Jack Welch)认识到变革的必要性,以及他在实际实施变革中的领导作用。

Summary of Change Management strategy 变革管理战略概述

Leadership also plays a critical role at Spark New Zealand. This company, which was established in 1987 and went public in 1990, has achieved tremendous growth in the last 30 years because of the influence of its leadership on its operations (Spark New Zealand, 2018). Currently, Spark New Zealand has a total of 5,774 employees, a market capitalisation of $6,739 million and a share price of $3.67 per share (Wall Street Journal, 2018). Whereas this company operates only on the New Zealand market, it is listed on three mainly stock markets across the globe, that is, New Zealand, Australian, and the New York Stock exchanges. Importantly, Spark New Zealand has adopted a management practice that involves division of labour and delegation of responsibility through its organisational structure that is made up of different departments that report to the general manager, who in turn report to the Board of Directors.
领导能力在新西兰Spark也发挥着关键作用。该公司成立于1987年,1990年上市,由于其领导层对其运营的影响,在过去30年中取得了巨大的增长(Spark New Zealand,2018)。目前,Spark New Zealand共有5774名员工,市值为67.39亿美元,每股股价为3.67美元(《华尔街日报》,2018年)。虽然该公司仅在新西兰市场运营,但它在全球三个主要股票市场上市,即新西兰、澳大利亚和纽约证券交易所。重要的是,Spark New Zealand采用了一种管理实践,通过其由向总经理报告的不同部门组成的组织结构进行分工和授权,总经理反过来向董事会报告。